Home | Links | Contact Us | Top 50 | News | Bookmark
Find a drug:
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   #  

Health Forum    Infectious Diseases
Health Discussion Forum

 Camping; How can you prevent ticks....?
I'm going camping in 2 weeks time in a field, and me and my friends will be going around the forests to get sticks and build a fire, etc. l'm quite worried about getting bitten by a Tick ...

 ok now im really scared phase 4?
bbc news said the level is now phase 4 eek are you ...


 how dangerous it the swine flu?
there have been reported cases in schools around my area and i just want some info about it.....

 Traveling w/ 1 year old, should I have him wear a mask or don't worry because of the swine flu?
I am that type that constantly washes my hands and carries antibacterial wipes and purell. I am very cautious, washing my hands before and after the bathroom and opening and closing everything in ...

 Who is most likely to catch the flu?
What age group, what gender, what health conditions...?


 What is your opinion on the Swine Flu epidemic?

 what are some deadly diseases that humans don't know about?

 How to get sick purposely?
How to get a fever purposely? Please tell me ASAP.
Example: Taking a bath with lots of ice. Which will cause headache. (Tried it, and got sent home from school =D)

Please I need your ...

 what does is mean if you cough blood?
im sick and that just happened should i go to the hospital?...

 is this a real disease or is this made up?
my bf says he has this heart condition in which he has to stay active otherwise his heart will stop and he could die. he also said he inherited from his dad and his dad is in the hospital 4 it now. ...

 my hamster is unwell not eating or drinking and has been shaky for 4 days and seems very weak.?
my hamster is unwell not eating or drinking has been shaky for 4 days and seems very ...

 Is Swine Flu Pandemic really a pandemic?
Our known and loved "lesser" influenza strains kill quiet a large number of people every year. If you average out the figures swine flu is quiet tame in ...

 What happens if a person with swine flu gets swine flu vaccine?
does the vaccine cure the ...

 has anyone had the swine flu injection?
anyone had the swine flu injection is it bad for you? is there any side effects ? ...

 Swine flu= me scared!?
ok, so alot of people are really scared because of the swine flu! so am i! today i woke up with a sore throat, now my sore throat is worse, im also sneezing and i have a stuffy nose, do you have ...

 What is a chicken pox party?

 swine flu...........?
So one of my closest friend has the swine flu and i saw her friday and saturday. we had a sleepover at my house and she slept in my room. i want to know if i have swine flu becuase....I just came ...

 Does cranberry juice really help if you get uti's alot?

 Did he for sure get autism from the vaccine?
Our neighbors son is 6 and he has autism. He is non-verbal and bangs his head a lot and runs around all day. They say that he was completely normal before and was starting to talk and then he got his ...

lil' moosey_giggle bear_ :)
is it true that you can only get mono once?
i know if you dont rest up enough you can relapse or whatever, but can you completly get rid of it and then get it back again? just wondering....

can you only get a cold once?

7.62 MM
not true

The simple answer is yes, you can only get it once.

lynnet bielech michaels
itsbasically avirus thatsinyour system and yes youcan getitmorethan 1 xthebest idto get rest so yourimnumesyatem gets back to whereit should beaswel as anticotics but reat is thebestswnero losds of luck


Sarah D
Yes, you can get it more than once.

Sorry to tell you this, but mono doesn't go away--ever. It's a viral infection, and can't be cured. The symptoms can go away, but you won't get rid of it. 90% of the population has the virus by the time they are 40, but only a small percentage ever show symptoms.

bob k
Probably....but not always.

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as kissing disease, Pfeiffer's disease, mono (in North America) and more commonly known as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries. It occurs most commonly in adolescents and young adults, where it is characterized by fever, sore throat, muscle soreness, and fatigue. Infectious mononucleosis typically produces a very mild illness in small children, but is usually asymptomatic. Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which infects B cells (B-lymphocytes), producing a reactive lymphocytosis and atypical T cells (T-lymphocytes) known as Downey bodies.

The name comes because the number of mononuclear leukocytes (white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus) rises significantly. There are two main types of mononuclear leukocytes: monocytes and lymphocytes. The normal blood values for lymphocytes are that they comprise 35% of all white blood cells. With infectious mononucleosis, this can rise to 50-70%. Also, the total white blood count may increase to 10,000-20,000 per cubic millimeter (normally 4,000-11,000).

After an initial prodrome of 1-2 weeks, the fatigue of infectious mononucleosis often lasts from 1-2 months. The virus can remain dormant in the B cells indefinitely after symptoms have disappeared, and resurface at a later date. Many people exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus do not show symptoms of the disease, but carry the virus. This is especially true in children, in whom infection seldom causes more than a very mild cold which often goes undiagnosed. Children are typically just carriers of the disease. This feature, along with mono's long (4 to 6 week) incubation period, makes epidemiological control of the disease impractical. About 6% of people who have had infectious mononucleosis will relapse.

Mononucleosis can cause the spleen to swell. Rupture may occur without trauma,[citation needed] but impact to the spleen is also a factor. Other complications include hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) causing elevation of serum bilirubin (in approximately 40% of patients), jaundice (approximately 5% of cases), and anemia (a deficiency of red blood cells). In rare cases, death may result from severe hepatitis or splenic rupture.

Usually, the longer the infected person experiences the symptoms, the more the infection weakens the person's immune system, and hence the longer s/he will need to recover.[citation needed] Cyclical reactivation of the virus, although rare in healthy people, is often a sign of immunological abnormalities in the small subset of organic disease patients in which the virus is active or reactivated.

Although all cases of mononucleosis are caused by the E.B. virus, cytomegalovirus can produce a similar illness, usually with less throat pain. Due to the presence of the atypical lymphocytes on the blood smear in both conditions, some physicians confusingly used to include both infections under the diagnosis of "mononucleosis," though EBV is by definition the infection that must be present for this illness. Symptoms similar to those of mononucleosis can be caused by adenovirus, acute HIV infection and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.

[edit] Diagnosis
This section requires expansion.

Peripheral blood smear (low power) showing lymphocytosis from a 16-year-old male with pharyngitis and positive monospot test.Laboratory findings often include a higher-than-normal white blood cell count, and the characteristic finding of atypical lymphocytes -- unusual-appearing white blood cells that are seen when blood is examined under a microscope. Abnormal liver function tests are also characteristic.

Common tests for EBV include:

A monospot test (positive for infectious mononucleosis)
Epstein-Barr virus antigen by immunofluorescence (positive for EBV)
Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers to help distinguish acute infection from past infection with EBV

[edit] Transmission
Mononucleosis is typically transmitted from asymptomatic individuals through saliva, earning it the name "the kissing disease", or by sharing a drink, or sharing eating utensils. It may also be transmitted through blood. Individuals in close living arrangements nearly always pass the infection onto each other, although symptoms may not present for months or even years. As with many viral infections, such as chicken pox, antibodies are developed by individuals who become infected with the disease and recover. In most individuals, these antibodies remain in their system, creating lifelong immunity to further infections.[2]

[edit] Atypical presentations of mononucleosis/EBV infection
In small children, the course of the disease is frequently asymptomatic. Some adult patients suffer fever, tiredness, lassitude (abnormal fatigue), depression, lethargy, and chronic lymph node swelling, for months or years. This variant of mononucleosis has been referred to as chronic EBV syndrome or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), although CFS is a distinct condition from IM. Still, current studies suggest there is an association between infectious mononucleosis and CFS.[3] In case of a weakening of the immune system, a reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus is possible; in CFS there is evidence of immune activation also. "Chronic fatigue states" as defined by the CDC criteria for CFS, appear to occur in 10% of those who contract mononucleosis.[3] Chronic fatigue may then be a rather common side effect of infectious mononucleosis. On the other hand, studies conducted by the CDC[citation needed] and others[who?] have discounted a link between EBV and CFS.

Perhaps a majority of chronic post infectious "fatigue states" appear not to be caused by a chronic viral infection, but are triggered by the acute infection.[citation needed] Direct and indirect evidence of persistent viral infection has been found in CFS, for example in muscle and via detection of an unusually low molecular weight RNase L enzyme, although the commonality and significance of such findings is disputed. Hickie et al contend that mononucleosis appears to cause a hit and run injury to the brain in the early stages of the acute phase, thereby causing the chronic fatigue state. This would explain why in mononucleosis, fatigue very often lingers for months after the Epstein Barr virus has been controlled by the immune system. Just how infectious mononucleosis changes the brain and causes fatigue (or lack thereof) in certain individuals remains to be seen. Such a mechanism may include activation of microglia in the brain of some individuals during the acute infection. Microglia may remain activated or "damaged" for months following infection, thereby causing a slowly dissipating fatigue. Secondary infections can occur. Such infections include mild swelling of the cartilage between the sternum and ribs occurring approximately one month after initial diagnosis.

[edit] Treatment
Infectious mononucleosis is generally self-limiting and only symptomatic and/or supportive treatments are used.[4] Rest is recommended during the acute phase of the infection, but activity should be resumed once acute symptoms have resolved. Nevertheless heavy physical activity and contact sports should be avoided to abrogate the risk of splenic rupture, for at least one month following initial infection and until splenomegaly has resolved, as determined by ultrasound scan.[4]

In terms of pharmacotherapies, acetaminophen/paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be used to reduce fever and pain – aspirin is not used due to the risk of Reye's syndrome in children and young adults. Intravenous corticosteroids, usually hydrocortisone or dexamethasone, are not recommended for routine use[5] but may be useful if there is a risk of airway obstruction, severe thrombocytopenia, or hemolytic anemia.[6][7]

There is little evidence to support the use of aciclovir, although it may reduce initial viral shedding.[8] However, the antiviral drug valacyclovir has recently been shown to lower or eliminate the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus in subjects afflicted with acute mononucleosis, leading to a significant decrease in the severity of symptoms. [9][10][11] Antibiotics are not used as they are ineffective against viral infections. The antibiotics amoxicillin and ampicillin are contraindicated in the case of any coinciding bacterial infections during mononucleosis because their use can frequently precipitate a non-allergic rash. In a small percentage of cases, mononucleosis infection is complicated by co-infection with streptococcal infection in the throat and tonsils (strep throat). Penicillin or other antibiotics (with the exception of the two mentioned above) should be administered to treat the strep throat. Opioid analgesics are also contraindicated due to risk of respiratory depression.[6]

[edit] Morbidity and mortality
Fatalities from mononucleosis are near impossible in developed nations. Uncommon, nonfatal complications exist, including various forms of CNS and hematological affection:

CNS: Meningitis, encephalitis, hemiplegia and transverse myelitis. EBV infection has also been proposed as a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS)[12], but this has not been affirmed.
Hematologic: EBV can cause autoimmune hemolytic anemia (direct Coombs test is positive) and various cytopenias.

[edit] References
^ Chapman AL, Watkin R, Ellis CJ (2002). "Abdominal pain in acute infectious mononucleosis". BMJ 324 (7338): 660–1. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7338.660. PMID 11895827.
^ Mononucleosis -- Causes. eMedicineHealth (12/7/2007). Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
^ a b Hickie I, Davenport T, Wakefield D, et al (2006). "Post-infective and chronic fatigue syndromes precipitated by viral and non-viral pathogens: prospective cohort study". BMJ 333 (7568):

You can get mono again because there are different types.
For example:
The first time you get Mono A. You get over it and your body has built up immunity so you can't get it again.
But then Mono B comes along so then you get mono again and so on.
Your body can only fight what its seen before, and a lot of diseases mutate quickly.

sandra d
once you have mono it is in your system forever. you will not be able to donate blood. you can have a re-occurance at times but it will always be in your system

Not at all, you become immune to one strand of mono after having it, but there are many many types of mono.

From what I understand, it's like chicken pox in that if you get a severe case of it one time, you generally don't get again. Sometimes, I think people get a mild case of it with mild symptoms and they are not immune. This website says that you will still have positive blood test results, though.

hell no luke has gotten it about 3 billion times, and you know that he never sleeps, and even when he is completly better he gets it again.

 Enter Your Message or Comment

User Name:  
User Email:   
Post a comment:

Large Text
Archive: All drugs - Links - Forum - Forum - Forum - Medical Topics
Drug3k does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. 0.024
Copyright (c) 2013 Drug3k Friday, April 8, 2016
Terms of use - Privacy Policy